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Divorce is associated with an increased risk of future depressive episodes but only for those who already have a history of depression, according to a new study published in Clinical Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
“Stressful life events like divorce are associated with significant risk for prolonged emotional distress, including clinically-significant depression,” notes psychological scientist and lead researcher David Sbarra of the University of Arizona. “At the same time, we know from considerable research that the experience of divorce is non-random. Some people are much greater risk for experiencing a divorce than other people.”
This led Sbarra and colleagues to wonder: Is it divorce, or the factors leading to divorce – such as marital discord, neuroticism, or hostility – that increase the risk for depression?
To investigate this question, the researchers took advantage of data from the longitudinal, nationally representative Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. The researchers matched each participant who had separated or divorced during the study to a continuously married person in the study who had the same propensity to divorce, based on a number of previously identified factors. By comparing participants to their match, the researchers were able to account for the fact that it’s impossible to randomly assign people to divorce or stay married.
In line with previous research, the results showed that divorce had a significant effect on subsequent depression.
But, as Sbarra and colleagues found, the full story was a bit more complex.
Specifically, divorce or separation only increased the likelihood of a later depressive episode for those participants who reported a history of depression. In fact, nearly 60% of adults with a history of depression who divorced during the study experienced a depressive episode at the follow-up assessment.
For all other participants – including those who had a history of depression but hadn’t divorced, and those who divorced but had no history of depression – there was no elevated risk for a future depressive episode. Only about 10% of these people experienced a depressive episode at follow-up.
Although working mothers and fathers are almost as likely to think about family matters throughout the day, only for mothers is this type of mental labor associated with increased stress and negative emotions, according to new research to be presented at the 108th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association.
“I assume that because mothers bear the major responsibility for childcare and family life, when they think about family matters, they tend to think about the less pleasant aspects of it — such as needing to pick up a child from daycare or having to schedule a doctor’s appointment for a sick kid — and are more likely to be worried,” said study author Shira Offer, an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Bar-Ilan University in Israel.
Much has been written about the unequal division of household labor and childcare, but the overwhelming majority of studies in this field examine specific behaviors, Offer said. “These studies focus on the physical aspect of tasks and demands, which can be measured and quantified relatively easily,” she said. “However, much of the work we do, both paid and unpaid, takes place in our mind. We are often preoccupied with the things we have to do, we often worry about them, and feel stressed not to forget to do them or to do them on time. These thoughts and concerns — mental labor — can impair our performance, make it difficult to focus on tasks, and even hurt our sleep. This mental labor is the focus of my study.”
The study relies on data from the 500 Family Study, a multi-method investigation of how middle-class families balance family and work experiences. The 500 Family Study collected comprehensive information from 1999 to 2000 on families living in eight urban and suburban communities across the United States. Most parents in the 500 Family Study are highly educated, employed in professional occupations, and work, on average, longer hours and report higher earnings than do middle-class families in other, nationally representative samples. Although the 500 Family Study is not a representative sample of families in the U.S., it reflects one of the most time pressured segments of the population. Offer’s study uses a subsample from the 500 Family Study, consisting of 402 mothers and 291 fathers in dual-earner families who completed a survey and a time diary that collects information about the content and context of individuals’ daily experiences, as well as the emotions associated with them, in the course of a week.
Prof. Fatic talks about the modern philosophical term ‘polylog’ and the implications of client-counselor relationship and dynamics. What to expect from a counseling session and why is it taking longer than anticipated? “Those who prefer to maintain a distance will be much less able to help the clients change their ways of seeing the world and reacting to it,” says Prof. Fatic. Getting through to the client is not a straight forward business, but a real challenge to any Therapist. Client-Therapist relationship is very important and highly significant. In his own words, “The relationship between the client and the counselor is the foundation of the client’s emancipation and progress in addressing the issues.”
Press Release: Aug. 15, 2013 – BANGALORE, India — Joseph George, from Bangalore, India, is a clinically trained professional counselor who has over 20 years of professional experience of helping people in distress who come with various needs, challenges, and concerns that disturb their mental and emotional wellbeing and functioning. His therapeutic approach not only focus on the current issue which disturb the persons but also their wholistic mental and emotional health. He believes that a professional counselor needs to two professional directions: therapeutic intervention with a focus to help in distress and crisis; and preventive approaches to help the persons and communities to remain healthy. He has the experience of providing counseling services in the following modes: face-to-face, telephone, ecounseling, and counseling through live chat and text chat.
Dr. George obtained his advanced level clinical training and the Doctoral Degree from the Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, (1995-2002), with specialization in psychology, religion, and psychotherapeutic practice. His academic orientation to Psychoanalytic practice, Object Relations theory, Self-Psychology, He comes with training and experience in working with religious (multi-faith)
He recognizes and promotes the idea of online counseling services for a number of reasons. Many in the contemporary context acknowledge the need for professional help for a fulfilling personal, family, social, and professional life but unable to find adequate support system due to various reasons. Online counseling services (https://www.proventherapy.com) is available 24/7 at the privacy of one’s home and reduce the travel time to an office set up. The non-judgmental approach, respect, and confidentiality are key elements in online therapeutic practice.
Press Release: Aug. 10, 2013 – Jamie Brown is a Sister in the Community of Francis and Clare, a certified Holistic Wellness Counselor and Heart of Yoga teacher who has been counseling individuals and couples since 1988. She has an M.A. in Psychology with an emphasis on the Jungian or Transpersonal approach and wrote her Master’s thesis on “The Psychology of Nonattachment in the Bhagavad Gita.” While working on her B.A. in Philosophy, Jamie also studied comparative religions in addition to obtaining certification as a Kriya Yogi. She has been a student of enlightened masters including the Dalai Lama, from whom she received the Empowerment of Padmasambhava in 1989.
Jamie draws upon the wisdom traditions of both East and West in her counseling practice. She counsels from a holistic perspective:
Jamie is the Director of Lothlorien House, a non-profit spiritual retreat center in Panama City, Florida where she provides counseling and other pastoral services and teaches yoga, meditation and contemplative prayer. She is very happy to have opened her online clinic at https://www.proventherapy.com/